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Sunday, June 26, 2016

How to Make Simple Stirling Engine at Home ( With Pictures and Video)

Let's make Stirling engine today. A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. More specifically, the Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid.

Diy stirling engine Project: Stirling engines have a high efficiency compared to steam engines,being able to reach 50% efficiency. They are also capable of quiet operation and can use almost any heat source. The heat energy source is generated external to the Stirling engine rather than by internal combustion as with the Otto cycle or Diesel cycle engines.

Stirling engines are compatible with alternative and renewable energy sources, since it could become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as depletion of oil supplies and climate change.
Recommending to Read: How to make Mini Wind Turbine -Complete DIY Guide

[caption id="attachment_894" align="aligncenter" width="800"]DIY Stirling engine How to Make DIY Stirling Engine at Home[/caption]


In this project, we will give you simple instructions to make a very simple DIY Stirling engine using test tube and syringe. You can make this simple Stirling engine at home. At the end of this project, we will discuss the importance of concentrated solar thermal power in the future of Stirling engine technology.

How to make a Simple Stirling engine Video



Components and Steps to make Simple Stirling engine

1. A Piece of  ACP or hardwood 

This is the base for your Stirling engine.  So it should be hard and stiff enough to cope up with the movements of the engine. Then, make three small holes as shown in the figure. You can also use plywood, wood etc.acp sheet

2. Marbles

In Stirling engine, these marbles perform an important function. In this project, the marbles act as a displacer of hot air from the warm side of the test tube to the cold side. When marbles displace hot air, it cools down.




3. Sticks, fishers, and Screws

Sicks and screws are used to hold the test tube in a convenient position to move freely in any direction without any interruptions. Watch the video- how can it be fixed on the Base.



4. Rubber Pieces


Buy an eraser and cut it into the following forms. It is used to hold the test tube tightly and to keep the test tube airtight. There should not have any leakage in the mouth part of the test tube. If so the project wouldn't be a success.


rubber pieces

5. Syringe

The syringe is one of the most important and moving parts in a simple Stirling engine. Add some lubricants inside the syringe so that the piston can move freely inside the cylinder. When Air get expanded inside the test tube, it pushes the piston downward. As a result, Syringe cylinder moves upward. At the same time, marbles roll to the hot side of the test tube and displaces the hot air and causes it to cool down(decrease volume).




6. Test TubeThe test tube is the most important and working component of the simple Stirling engine. A test tube is made up of some special type of glasses (ex.borosilicate glass) that has a high heat resistant capacity. So it can be heated to high temperatures. 

 test tube

How a Stirling engine Work?

Some people say Stirling engines are simple. If that's true, it's true in the same way that the great equations of physics (like E = mc2) are simple: they're simple on the surface, but richer, more complex, and potentially very confusing indeed until you really figure them out. I think it's safer to think of Stirling engines as complex: lots of very poor videos on YouTube show how easy it is to "explain" them in a very incomplete and unsatisfactory way. (sorry.. me too)

To my mind, you can't understand a Stirling engine simply by building one or watching one operating from the outside: you need to think hard about the cycle of steps it's going through, what's going on with the gas inside, and how that differs from what happens in an ordinary steam engine.

All that is required for the engine to run is that there should be a temperature difference between the hot and cold parts of the gas chamber. Models have been built that can run with just a 4oC temperature difference though commercial engines are likely to run on a few hundred degrees differential. These engines have the potential to be the most efficient form of combustion engine.

Stirling engines and Concentrated Solar Power

Stirling engines provide a neat method of converting heat energy to motion that can drive a generator. The most common arrangement is to have the engine at the focus of a parabolic mirror. The mirror will be mounted on a tracking device to keep the sun's rays focussed on the engine.

*Stirling engine as Reciever

You may have played with convex lenses in your school days.. Concentrating solar power to burn a piece of paper or match stick, am I right? New technologies are developing day by day. Concentrated Solar thermal power is gaining more attention these days. Read more about World's largest concentrated solar plant. Now Dubai Is Building the

World's Largest Concentrated Solar Power Plant.

Above is a short video clip of a simple test tube stirling engine using glass marbles as the displacer and a glass syringe as the power piston.

This simple Stirling engine was built from materials that are available in most school science labs and can be used to demonstrate a simple heat engine.

Pressure-volume diagram for the cycle
Stirling engine PV diagram

Process 1→2          Expansion of working gas on the hot end of the test tube, heat is transferred into gas and gas expands thus increasing volume and pushing syringe piston upwards.

Make Stirling engine

Process 2→3           As marbles move to the hot end of the test tube gas is displaced from the hot end of the test tube to the cold end, as gas moves it gives up heat into the test tube wall.

make stirling engine

Process 3→4           Heat is removed from the working gas and volume decreases, the syringe piston moves downwards.

Process 4→1           Completes the cycle working gas moves from the cold end of the test tube to the hot end, as the marbles displace it, acquiring heat from the test tube wall as it moves thus increasing the gas pressure.
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Sunday, June 12, 2016

How to Make a Homemade Mini Wind Turbine Propeller ( With Pictures and Video)

Let's make a home made mini wind turbine propeller today. Airfoil or propeller converts the kinetic energy of the wind into rotational Energy. When I first planned to make a simple mini wind turbine, I got confused about getting a mini wind turbine propeller. Many people suggested me to enquir in a hardware shop. But unfortunately, such a device was unavailable in our town.

When I was thinking about a remedy, one of my old friend said, "try to make it yourself.'' So I decided to make a wind turbine propeller for my own mini wind turbine. You can read the complete instructions to make a home made mini wind turbine here. or watch video here.

Home made mini wind turbine propeller
Home made mini wind turbine propeller

In actual practice, the propeller is the most important parts of a wind turbine. It is the functioning part. They are made in such a shape to obtain the proper function. The blades of a propeller are designed in the shape of a cambered airfoil, having a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric camber.

We know, Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world. Horizontal axis wind turbines are most popular wind turbine design. There are several factors that affect the efficiency of a Horizontal axis wind turbine propeller.

  • Length of blades

  • Aerodynamic section of blades

  • Planform shape

  • Airfoil thickness

  • Blade twist

  • Blade number

  • Rotational speed

  • Pitch control

But here we are going to make a working model of a wind turbine or home made mini wind turbine. So, We don't have to mind the factors listed above. Just make a simple mini wind turbine for your kids.


Watch this video. You will Like it!!

PVC 2.5 inch

Tools and Parts

  • 2.5 Inch PVC pipe 10 Inch in Length

  • Round base 1

  • Cycle screws 3

  • Hand cutter

  • Spanner

  • Drill

How to make a Home made mini wind turbine propeller?
Home made mini wind turbine propeller blades


Home made mini wind turbine propeller

  1. Buy a piece of  PVC PIPE from a hardware shop.

  2. Cut it into three equal parts. Watch video.

  3. Then again cut each three parts in to two.

  4. Take three  from six identical  blades.

  5. Use a drill to make holes at one end if the pieces.

  6. Fine the edges using the cutter.

  7. Buy a round base and cut a round piece. (coin size)

  8. Make holes as shown at equal distances.

  9. Join three blades to the round base using cycle screws.

  10. TIghten the screws using a spanner.


Home made mini wind turbine propeller is ready.

The Working Of A Cambered Airfoil or propeller blades

An airfoil is designed so that the air moves more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower surface. When the airfoil moves in the air, the speed of the air over the foil will be more than that of speed at the lower surface. The basic principle behind the working of an airfoil is Bernoulli's principle. It is a relation connecting speed of a fluid and pressure. The principle states that "the pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases". Actually the principle behind the lifting of an airplane is Bernoulli's principle.

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Sunday, June 5, 2016

How to make Small Wind Turbine (With Pictures and Video)

Make Small wind turbine at your home. You can see hundreds of make small wind turbine videos describing how to make small wind turbine at home easily. But many of them are not very helpful. Many of them do not offer a complete guide to make small wind turbine that works as a real one.

People are not satisfied, which can be understood from their comments. They are searching google again, again and again for more Make Small wind turbine videos. So I decided to build a small wind turbine and upload the making video on youtube. I went to town and bought necessary tools and parts from a hardware shop. Then I asked my friend to shoot video using my Smartphone.

Let's watch How to Make small Wind Turbine

Done?? How is it?

Later I realized a video is not enough to educate all kinds of people those who are willing to make small Wind turbine. In this post you can read each and every step I followed to make a small wind turbine. Don't forget to comment your opinion and share it with your friends.

[caption id="attachment_714" align="aligncenter" width="599"]Make Small wind turbine How to Make Small wind turbine[/caption]

How to Make Small Wind Turbine

Main Segments

  • Turbine Propeller

  • Turbine dynamo casing

  • Turbine Base

  • Turbine tail

Wind turbine propeller

Make Small wind turbine propeller[/caption] \

A wind turbine propeller converts wind energy n to rotational mechanical energy. It is the most important part of a wind turbine.Let's learn how to make turbine propeller.

  • Buy a 10 inch PVC Pipe (3inch in diameter)

  • equally divide the edge perimeter

  • Cut the pipe into blades as shown in video- watch video

  • Make holes as shown in the picture on anything round in shape with 2.5 inches.

  • Then screw 3 blades to it using cycle screws.

Keep in mind

  1. The weight of each blade should be equal.

  2. Each blade should be positioned on the plate at equal distances.

Wind turbine Dynamo Casing

Make Small Wind turbine Casing[/caption]

Dynamo casing holds both Dynamo and Autorotation Mechanism. A dynamo is used to convert mechanical energy or rotational energy generated by wind turbine propeller into electrical energy. If a dynamo converts mechanical energy into Alternating current it is known as Alternators. Different types of generators are available in the market.

  • wire

  • A piece of pen

  • PVC Fitting T

  • Buy 2 bearings

  • Buy a dynamo 3V

  • Connect the dynamo to the PVC fitting.

  • Connect the two bearings to a common axis. A piece of a pen can be used as the axis.

  • connect one bearing to the PVC T

The bearing setup is an autorotation mechanism (yaw mechanism). It helps the wind turbine to face the wind. When the direction of the wind changes from east to west, the tail-autorotation mechanism will automatically adjust the propeller to directly face the wind to utilize maximum wind energy.

Make small Wind turbine Base

The turbine base and the post holds the propeller, dynamo, tail, and autorotation mechanism. It is very easy to make the turbine base. Buy some PVC fittings.

  1. Elbow - 4

  2. PVC T - 3

  3. PVC pipe pieces

Connect these fittings as shown in the figure.

Make Small Wind turbine tail

Small Wind Turbine tail[/caption] Most of the DIY  wind turbine videos on youtube doesn't have a tail- autorotation mechanism. Without a tail-autorotation mechanism, a Small wind turbine is not complete. What is the purpose of a tail? The tail auto rotation mechanism will help the propeller to change the direction to face the wind. Th tail will force the propeller to face the wind even at higher wind speeds.

  1. cut GI sheet

  2. PVC Pipe, reducer

The Wind turbine is ready. Check its Working

  • Place the wind turbine in front of a fan

  • connect a multimeter to the output wires of the dynamo.

Yes, Multimeter needle is indicating a current flow through it. If you are using an efficient Dynamo, you can use this dynamo to charge your 3 v rechargeable battery. Besides, You can build a larger wind turbine than this to charge your smartphone too. Watch this video  make small wind turbine at home Hope you have enjoyed this DIY article. You can point out any fault from me. I welcome your comments. If you have any doubts about this project, ask me. But don't forget to share it with your friends.

Recommending to ReadHow to Make a Homemade Mini Wind Turbine Propeller


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