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Friday, December 16, 2016

SOLENOID ENGINE Powered CAR





Make Solenoid engine powered car
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Thursday, November 24, 2016

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

How Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plant Works?


The Concentrated solar thermal Power plant produces electricity from the heat from sun's rays. It's an effective source of large-scale energy production.

Firstly a solar farm is made up of heliostats. These are computer controlled mirrors which follow the movement of the sun in order to best reflect its rays towards a central point throughout the day. A solar farm can include from several hundred to several thousand heliostats which communicate with each other over wifi in order to optimize their yield.

I have made a non-working model of a concentrated solar thermal power tower plant to expain it's working in a better way. We have uploaded the making video in youtube, and have embedded the video in this page. Don't forget to comment.



Solar thermal power plant model 

The mirror pieces represents heliostats.

These heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a large heat exchanger called receiver that sits on top of a tower which located in the center of the solar farm. Within the receiver, fluid flows through the piping that forms the external walls. This fluid absorbs the heat from the concentrated sunlight. 

How to Make Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plant Video 

In this technology the fluid utilised is molten salt containing chemical components whose thermal properties are of particular interest. It's an ideal heat capture medium because it maintains a wider operating temperature range in the liquid state allowing the system to operate at low pressure for superior and safe energy capture and storage.

How Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Tower Technology Works?







Cold Molten Salt flows Up 




The cold molten salt stored in a tank at the base of 


the tower have pumped up to the top where they are heated to very high temperature.









Hot molten salt flows down 




Then they go down to a second thermal storage tank, where the energy is stored in the form of high-temperature molten salt until the electricity is needed. This thermal storage tank can store this energy to maintain electricity production for several hours after sunset.






This technology leverages liquid molten salt as both the energy collection and the storage mechanism which allows it to separate energy collection from electricity generation.

When the electricity is required by the utility day or night..




Molten salt flows through steam generator 



water converting to steam 

When the electricity is required by the utility day or night the high-temperature molten salt flows from the thermal storage tank to the steam generator as water is piped in from the water storage tank to generate the steam.



Turns turbine generating electricity 

Once the hot molten salt is used to generate the steam the cool molten salt is then piped back into the cold storage tank where it will flow back up the receiver to be reheated as the process continues.



After the steam is used to drive the steam turbine it's condensed back to water and returned to the water holding tank from where it will be pumped back into the steam generator when needed. The result is a high-quality super-heated steam to drive the standard steam turbine at maximum efficiency to generate reliable nonintermittent electricity during peak demand hours.


The Molten salt makes it possible to store heat and therefore energy. This makes the plant operational day and night up to twenty-four hours a day.

The steam generation process is identical to the process used in conventional gas , coal or nuclear power plants except that is 100% renewable with zero harmful emissions or waste.

These plants provide on-demand, reliable electricity from a renewable source the Sun.

How to Make Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Tower Model


Heliostats are the building blocks of a CONCENTRATED SOLAR TECHNOLOGY. Watch the video carefully to learn how we constructed a heliostats model from reeper pieces, Aluminium sheet and mirror pieces. Take care while handling Glass pieces. The more heliostats you make the more it would be beautiful.




Step 1:






Cut small pieces of reeper as shown in the figure or video 
Fix Fisher/plugs to one end of both pieces 
Join two parts using screws 
Now it is flexible to move in two-dimension. 


Step 2:



Cut small pieces of Aluminium sheet dimensions 2''*0.5'' 
Cut small pieces of mirrors using glass cutter 
Take care while handling Glass. 
Now is the time to connect all the components together. 

Step 3:



Connect Aluminium pieces on the reeper
Carefully connect glass pieces on the reeper-aluminium arrangement. 


Step 4



Even In a real Power plant heliostats doesn't require any heavy foundation work. In this project we can use Hard boards, acp sheet etc to fix heliostats around the tower. 

Take 3*3F piece of acp 
Mark 3 circles with adequate displacement between heliostats. 
Use a handdrill to make 4mm holes 
Use Drill Carefully. 
Connect all 100 heliostats on a 3*3 feet ACP Sheet as shown in the Video. 

Step 5:


Now construct the tower, receiver, and other necessary lighting systems. 
Buy strip leds having different colors- red,green,white,blue 
Red for hot molten salt 
Green for cold molten salt 
White for steam
Blue for Water 
Stick all the strips on the project components. 
Connect wires using Soldering Iron 

Mini solar thermal power plant is Ready 

Mini Concentrated solar thermal power tower plant is Ready!

Now is the Time to Learn the working Principle behind Concentrating Solar power tower technology. Look at these diagrams, then carefully watch the second half of the video. Comment our opinion about my project.
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Thursday, October 6, 2016

How to Make Solenoid Engine (Pictures and Video)

let's make a solenoid engine. You may have seen many videos of making solenoid engine online. There are hundreds of such videos on youtube. But this project is entirely different. We designed it in a way how automobile engines work. You can see many components similar to those in an internal combustion engine. You can see, pistons, connecting rod, crank, crankshaft, cylinder, cylinder head, flywheel etc. An IC engine works by the explosion of fuel inside the cylinder, whereas in solenoid engine the driving force is Electromagnetism.




[caption id="attachment_1033" align="aligncenter" width="502"]solenoid Engine Make solenoid Engine[/caption]

A solenoid is a type of electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic field. If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the electric current, a solenoid can be more specifically classified as an inductor rather than an electromagnet.  In engineering, the term may also refer to a variety of transducer devices that convert energy into linear motion. The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve, which is an integrated device containing an electromechanical solenoid which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which is a specific type of relay that internally uses an electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch; for example, an automobile starter solenoid, or a linear solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid. Solenoid bolts, a type of electronic-mechanical locking mechanism, also exist.



How to Make a Solenoid Engine Video



Recommending to Read: Make Small wind turbine

Things needed to Make Solenoid Engine



  1. ACP sheet or fibre sheet - small pieces

  2. Fibre reeper pieces

  3. Fisher plugs

  4. Screws 1.5''-2nos, 3/4'' -4nos

  5. Magnet wire or insulated copper wire- 26 gauge- 30mtrs

  6. Syringe- 2nos

  7. copper wire or GI rod- Guage 12- 30 cm

  8. Copper wire- Guage 18- 30cm

  9. Cylindrical Magnets

  10. Wood wheel


Tools needed to Make Solenoid Engine



  1. Angle Grinder

  2. Drilling machine

  3. 6mm drill bit, 4mm drill bit

  4. Cigar lighter

  5. Screwdriver

  6. Player


How to Make Solenoid Engine


Recommending to Read: How to make vertical axis wind turbine

Step 1: Making of Solenoid Cylinder 

  • First of all Cut two Similar Pieces of ACP or fibre sheet.

  • And mark Syringe dia on the sheet. Then Remove unwanted Part.

  • Now cut 2'' length from a cylinder part of a syringe. Fix the Syringe piece on the sheet.

  • Now is the time to wind the 26 gauge copper wire on the syringe piece.

  • Wind magnet wire tightly. Minimum turns 60, maximum: as much as possible.

  • The more you wind magnet wire, your engine will perform faster and powerful.

  • Make necessary holes. Watch Video.


[gallery columns="4" size="medium" ids="1020,1022,1021,1023,1025,1019,1024"]

Step 2: Making of Piston

  • The Piston has three parts. Piston head, connecting rod and crank.

  • We used a Cylindrical magnet as piston head,

  • fibre reeper-screw arrangement as the connecting rod,

  • a small piece of reeper as the crank.

  • Connecting rod plays an important role in transferring Power to Crankshaft easily.

  • I have made this joint Flexible. Note it.

  • Watch Video For more details


[gallery size="medium" ids="1029,1028,1030"]

Step 3: Making Crank Shaft

  • Buy 12 gauge copper wire or GI rod from hardware shop

  • Bend it as shown in the Figure


c1

Step 4: Make and break arrangement

  • Use 18 gauge copper wire to set the make and break arrangement.

  • Watch video Once again to know, how to set it.

  • Then Assemble each and every component carefully.

  • Connect a flywheel to one end of the Crankshaft.

  • Use an old laptop ac-dc adapter as Power supply.

  • Connect Leads to the Slip contacts as shown in the video.

  • That's all.


Make and Break solenoid engine

Keep in Mind

  • Take care while using high-performance adhesive, connecting Adapter to the engine, while using Drill, Angle Grinder etc.


 

Your Solenoid Engine is Ready!


[gallery size="medium" ids="1026,1033,1032"]

Let's make Your own solenoid engine today. Now is the time to rate my project. Did you enjoy this project? If Yes Share it with your friends. Comment your doubts and opinions. Suggest me if any modifications. Thank you for reading How to make solenoid engine.
2 comments

Saturday, October 1, 2016

How to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT (With Pictures and Video)

Wind turbines are used to harness wind power. There are different types of wind turbines. They are mainly classified as horizontal axis wind turbines and vertical axis wind turbines. Construction and working principles of a wind turbine can be easily understood from a working model. That's why I am always engaged in making working models of such devices, especially renewable energy harnessing devices. We have already discussed how to make small wind turbine (Horizontal axis). Today we are going to discuss How to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT).

Make Vertical axis wind turbine


How to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) Video


Let's Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) today.



Things needed to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine



  1. 4'' PVC Pipe 30 cm in length

  2. ACP Sheet 30cm in length

  3. Dynamo 3-5 Volt

  4. PVC or CPVC Fittings 3T's and 4 Elbows

  5. Pieces of PVC or CPVC Pipe

  6. L-Clamp Steel 4

  7. Plate washer 2'' IN Dia- 2

  8. GI Nut that suits Dynamo Pulley

  9. Connecting Wires

  10. 3/4'' Cycle Screws 30

  11. Powerbank

Tools needed to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine



  1. Angle Grinder

  2. Drilling machine

  3. 6mm drill bit

  4. Welding machine (optional)

  5. Multimeter

  6. Spanner set

  7. Other necessary equipment

How to Make Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)


Step 1



  • Take PVC Pipe having 4inch diameter and 30 cm length.

  • Axially divide it into 4 equal parts using an angle grinder

  • Carefully use angle grinder

  • Make holes on one side of the PVC using 6mm drill bit[gallery columns="2" size="medium" ids="978,977"]


Sep 2



  • Cut 4 pieces of ACP Sheet having 30 cm in length and 6 cm in width

  • Mark holes on ACP from PVC Pieces and make holes Using 6mm drill bit.

  • [gallery columns="1" size="medium" ids="983"]


Step 3



  • Buy 4 steel L-clamps and cut it into required length (12 cm * 6 cm) using an angle grinder.

  • Take care and wear glasses while using an angle grinder.

  • [gallery columns="1" size="medium" ids="988"]

Step 4



  • Take GI Plate washer 2'' in diameter

  • Take a GI nut that suits dynamo pulley

  • Weld GI Nut at the center of the plate washer

  • Then weld all 4 L-Clamps on the plate washer

  • Propeller frame is ready.

  • [gallery columns="4" size="medium" ids="981,982,973,987"]

Step 5



  • Connect ACP Sheets and PVC pieces together using cycle screws.

  • Use a spanner to tighten it.

  • Then connect these propeller blades on propeller frame.

  • Wind turbine propeller is ready.

  • [gallery size="medium" ids="987,975,976"]

Step 6



  • Buy PVC or CPVC fittings (4 elbows, 3 T's).

  • Join these components together to make wind turbine base.

  • Connect the wire to the dynamo and fix it on wind turbine base.

  • [gallery size="medium" ids="984,985,986"]


Step 7



  • Place propeller on the wind turbine base.

  • Vertical axis wind turbine is ready.

  • Place the wind turbine in front of a Fan.

  • Yeah. It's working fine

  • Check the output voltage using a multimeter.


  • [gallery size="medium" columns="1" ids="980"]


Vertical axis wind turbine is ready


This vertical axis wind turbine is just a working model. So output voltage would be very low. If you have a high-performance dynamo and even larger wind turbine propeller you can recharge your smartphone. You can also use a power bank to store the energy generated by the wind turbine. make your own power bank today.


Now we have learned to make vertical axis wind turbine. Now is the time to Make small wind turbine (horizontal axis). Share this DIY Wind turbine Guide with your friends.
1 comment

Thursday, July 28, 2016

How to Make Solar Charger Power Bank Guide (With Pictures and Video)

Today I'm here to explain how to make solar charger cum Powerbank for your smartphone. You can watch a video and read full-text guide to make your own one. If you are satisfied with this project don't forget to share it with your friends. Here you can read more about different components, where you can get it, How much will it cost, etc.


"Whenever I see you, you will be  looking at your phone". This is the unique and most usual sentence that I could hear several times from my friends and relatives. I know, this is not a compliment. but, How to get rid of this problem? I don't know. However, the one and only thing that I can predict about you is that You have experienced frustration at least once in your lifetime because of the low battery charge in your smartphone. Am I right? Tell me more about your experiences.


This Is the Main Part




[caption id="attachment_950" align="aligncenter" width="1280"]Make Solar Charger Make Solar Charger cum Power bank[/caption]
 

Recommending to read: How to make Small Wind Turbine Homemade

How to make Solar charger cum Power bank Video


You can watch everything you need to make solar charger cum power bank for your smartphone in this video. If you need more explanation skip the video and scroll down. If you Like this video Don't forget to share it with your friends. Sharing is caring. It's like a reward you give me for my Passionate work. Thank you.




Components to make Solar Charger cum Power bank


List of all components that you needed to make solar power bank.



1. DC to DC Converter


[caption id="attachment_954" align="aligncenter" width="491"]DC to DC Converter DC to DC Converter[/caption]


  1. Buy a 3V to 5V 1A  Module Step Up Converter Boost USB Charger. It  regulates and stabilizes output voltage and current. I bought it from Amazon. I'm a great fan of Amazon where you can search and buy each and every Components that you need to make projects like this. My readers aren't only from India. So I cannot provide link to a specific product link to Amazon. If you have any doubts about this product just drop your comments below. I'm very happy to help you. You can trust Amazon because they provide quality components. We can track our product anytime from your smartphone. That's why I love Amazon. In India, a DC to DC converter costs around 130 rupees only. In US, it's 4$ or more.


2. AA Size Rechargeable Batteries


[caption id="attachment_955" align="aligncenter" width="504"]Rechargeable Batteries Rechargeable Batteries[/caption]

 

Buy four AA Size 1.2 V 1600 mAh Rechargeable batteries. You can use any 5V 1600 mAh Battery to make this project. By the way, I know you may be thinking why I placed the rechargeable battery outside the device. There is a reason. Consider your smartphone is running out of power and you forgot to recharge the power bank. What would you do? Obviously, you can use a solar panel to charge your smartphone. What would you do If it was a cloudy day or you are facing this problem at night? (hope It won't). Here comes the importance of placing battery outside using a battery connector. Therefore you can buy some non-rechargeable batteries and connect them to the battery connector and recharge your smartphone. That's it.

3. Diodes, Battery connector, Plain PCB Wires, Switch


Buy 2 IN4007Diodes a battery connector, a piece of plain PCB from your favorite hardware/electronics shoppe. Since these components are locally available I don't recommend Amazon here. You can use a plain Pcb to make the circuit compact. At the same time, you can simply connect all the components directly using a soldering Iron.


Recommending to read: How to Make DIY Stirling Engine at Home



4. Circuit Diagram


[caption id="attachment_956" align="aligncenter" width="800"]Make solar charger Make solar charger[/caption]

5.Tools


Soldering Iron


Multimeter


Conclusion


If you have a smartphone and internet connection, you may feel like the world is at your finger tip. You can watch videos, stay updated with the latest news, learn new languages, make money, etc. But a smartphone without charge is like heartless human body. No connection with the world and it cannot perform even its basic functions. As soon as my smartphone cries "I'm running out of power," some kind of frustration will surface in my mind.


It's not a good Idea to buy a power bank cum solar charger from Amazon (I don't know if it is available). Instead, I bought a DC to DC converter and 4 rechargeable batteries from amazon (Total $4). And I made My own Power bank cum solar charger. It's your turn to make solar charger. Go ahead! Don't forget to share..


 
1 comment

Sunday, July 3, 2016

How to Make Solar Mobile Charger (With Pictures and Video)

The only thing that I can predict about you is, you have experienced frustration at least once in your lifetime because of the low battery charge in your mobile phone. Am I right? But ever since I experienced it, I started to think about a portable Solar mobile charger. Solar power is everywhere. We don't want to look here and there to find a power plug. Just plug in the solar charger to the phone.



Nowadays, solar power is gaining increased attention. As a result Cost of solar panels has declined dramatically. Solar power is renewable and it doesn't have any environmental impact. If we can implement renewable energy sources, especially solar power in each and every field from small scale industries to the defense we can reduce global warming and stop the dangers of climate Change. Solar mobile charger.

Recommending to read: How to make Small Wind Turbine




 

[caption id="attachment_877" align="aligncenter" width="400"]Solar mobile charger Solar Powered mobile Phone charger[/caption]




Let's Make a Solar mobile Charger today. I have uploaded a video on youtube about this project. You can watch that video at the end of this Project. It is a low-cost project. You can buy each and every parts online.

Parts of Solar mobile Charger




 

1. Solar panel 6V



You can buy solar panels online at cheap rates. It costs Less than 10$. The Solar panel is the most important part of this project. So buy a quality product from amazon.




[caption id="attachment_880" align="aligncenter" width="400"]Solar panel 6v Solar panel 6[/caption]




2. Rechargeable Batteries 4*1.2v and holder



The output of a solar power is not constant. The main disadvantage of solar power is that it may not be able to provide enough power for our application in cloudy days. To overcome  thisproblem I have included a set of rechargeable batteries in the project design. So we can recharge the battery inside the charger  and make it available later.




[caption id="attachment_881" align="aligncenter" width="402"]Rechargeable Battery Rechargeable Battery[/caption]



3. Diodes IN4007



 

A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist. Buy IN4007 Silicon Diode (any diode will work)

 




[caption id="attachment_882" align="aligncenter" width="400"]Diode IN4007 Diodes[/caption]





4. Capacitor 10nf





The output of a solar panel may not be constant. Any small fluctuations may affect the efficient charging of the mobile phone battery. To overcome this problem we can use a 10nf capacitor  in parallel to the circuit.





5. Switch, EP sockets, Male sockets connecting Wires







[gallery ids="884,883"]








Tools to make a Solar Mobile Charger





 

1. Soldering Iron (optional)

 




Joining the leads of the components is important because any loose connection may reduce the efficiency and cause  wastage of energy. So use a soldering iron to connect leads together.






[caption id="attachment_889" align="aligncenter" width="401"]Soldering Iron Soldering Iron[/caption]





2. Multimeter (optional)

 

A Multimeter is an instrument designed to measure electric current, voltage, and usually resistance, typically over several ranges of value. So you can easily find the anode side of the diode, measure the output voltage, etc.




 

[caption id="attachment_888" align="aligncenter" width="401"]Multimeter Analog Multimeter[/caption]


 

Recommending to read: How to Make Your Own Solar Panel Or Solar Cell at home?

Circuit Diagram of Solar Mobile Charger


 


[caption id="attachment_885" align="aligncenter" width="800"]Solar mobile charger Circuit Solar mobile charger Circuit[/caption]





 

[caption id="attachment_886" align="aligncenter" width="803"]Solar mobile charger Solar mobile charger Working[/caption]





How to Make a Solar Mobile Charger: Video



How is it? cool right. Share it with your friends. Share your awesome Ideas. Comment your Opinion about this project Solar Powered mobile phone charger. Solar Mobile charger, Charge your mobile using a 6v solar panel.

No comments

Sunday, June 26, 2016

How to Make Simple Stirling Engine at Home ( With Pictures and Video)


Let's make Stirling engine today. A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. More specifically, the Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid.




Diy stirling engine Project: Stirling engines have a high efficiency compared to steam engines,being able to reach 50% efficiency. They are also capable of quiet operation and can use almost any heat source. The heat energy source is generated external to the Stirling engine rather than by internal combustion as with the Otto cycle or Diesel cycle engines.

Stirling engines are compatible with alternative and renewable energy sources, since it could become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as depletion of oil supplies and climate change.
Recommending to Read: How to make Mini Wind Turbine -Complete DIY Guide




[caption id="attachment_894" align="aligncenter" width="800"]DIY Stirling engine How to Make DIY Stirling Engine at Home[/caption]

 





In this project, we will give you simple instructions to make a very simple DIY Stirling engine using test tube and syringe. You can make this simple Stirling engine at home. At the end of this project, we will discuss the importance of concentrated solar thermal power in the future of Stirling engine technology.

How to make a Simple Stirling engine Video


 



 


Components and Steps to make Simple Stirling engine





1. A Piece of  ACP or hardwood 

This is the base for your Stirling engine.  So it should be hard and stiff enough to cope up with the movements of the engine. Then, make three small holes as shown in the figure. You can also use plywood, wood etc.acp sheet




2. Marbles

In Stirling engine, these marbles perform an important function. In this project, the marbles act as a displacer of hot air from the warm side of the test tube to the cold side. When marbles displace hot air, it cools down.

 

marbles




 

3. Sticks, fishers, and Screws

Sicks and screws are used to hold the test tube in a convenient position to move freely in any direction without any interruptions. Watch the video- how can it be fixed on the Base.

 




reaper


4. Rubber Pieces

 

Buy an eraser and cut it into the following forms. It is used to hold the test tube tightly and to keep the test tube airtight. There should not have any leakage in the mouth part of the test tube. If so the project wouldn't be a success.

 

rubber pieces

5. Syringe

The syringe is one of the most important and moving parts in a simple Stirling engine. Add some lubricants inside the syringe so that the piston can move freely inside the cylinder. When Air get expanded inside the test tube, it pushes the piston downward. As a result, Syringe cylinder moves upward. At the same time, marbles roll to the hot side of the test tube and displaces the hot air and causes it to cool down(decrease volume).




 

Syringe




 

6. Test TubeThe test tube is the most important and working component of the simple Stirling engine. A test tube is made up of some special type of glasses (ex.borosilicate glass) that has a high heat resistant capacity. So it can be heated to high temperatures. 


 test tube



How a Stirling engine Work?



Some people say Stirling engines are simple. If that's true, it's true in the same way that the great equations of physics (like E = mc2) are simple: they're simple on the surface, but richer, more complex, and potentially very confusing indeed until you really figure them out. I think it's safer to think of Stirling engines as complex: lots of very poor videos on YouTube show how easy it is to "explain" them in a very incomplete and unsatisfactory way. (sorry.. me too)



To my mind, you can't understand a Stirling engine simply by building one or watching one operating from the outside: you need to think hard about the cycle of steps it's going through, what's going on with the gas inside, and how that differs from what happens in an ordinary steam engine.


All that is required for the engine to run is that there should be a temperature difference between the hot and cold parts of the gas chamber. Models have been built that can run with just a 4oC temperature difference though commercial engines are likely to run on a few hundred degrees differential. These engines have the potential to be the most efficient form of combustion engine.


Stirling engines and Concentrated Solar Power


Stirling engines provide a neat method of converting heat energy to motion that can drive a generator. The most common arrangement is to have the engine at the focus of a parabolic mirror. The mirror will be mounted on a tracking device to keep the sun's rays focussed on the engine.



*Stirling engine as Reciever


You may have played with convex lenses in your school days.. Concentrating solar power to burn a piece of paper or match stick, am I right? New technologies are developing day by day. Concentrated Solar thermal power is gaining more attention these days. Read more about World's largest concentrated solar plant. Now Dubai Is Building the

World's Largest Concentrated Solar Power Plant.



Above is a short video clip of a simple test tube stirling engine using glass marbles as the displacer and a glass syringe as the power piston.

This simple Stirling engine was built from materials that are available in most school science labs and can be used to demonstrate a simple heat engine.

Pressure-volume diagram for the cycle
Stirling engine PV diagram

Process 1→2          Expansion of working gas on the hot end of the test tube, heat is transferred into gas and gas expands thus increasing volume and pushing syringe piston upwards.

Make Stirling engine

Process 2→3           As marbles move to the hot end of the test tube gas is displaced from the hot end of the test tube to the cold end, as gas moves it gives up heat into the test tube wall.

make stirling engine

Process 3→4           Heat is removed from the working gas and volume decreases, the syringe piston moves downwards.

Process 4→1           Completes the cycle working gas moves from the cold end of the test tube to the hot end, as the marbles displace it, acquiring heat from the test tube wall as it moves thus increasing the gas pressure.
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Sunday, June 12, 2016

How to Make a Homemade Mini Wind Turbine Propeller ( With Pictures and Video)



Let's make a home made mini wind turbine propeller today. Airfoil or propeller converts the kinetic energy of the wind into rotational Energy. When I first planned to make a simple mini wind turbine, I got confused about getting a mini wind turbine propeller. Many people suggested me to enquir in a hardware shop. But unfortunately, such a device was unavailable in our town.

When I was thinking about a remedy, one of my old friend said, "try to make it yourself.'' So I decided to make a wind turbine propeller for my own mini wind turbine. You can read the complete instructions to make a home made mini wind turbine here. or watch video here.










Home made mini wind turbine propeller
Home made mini wind turbine propeller


In actual practice, the propeller is the most important parts of a wind turbine. It is the functioning part. They are made in such a shape to obtain the proper function. The blades of a propeller are designed in the shape of a cambered airfoil, having a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric camber.

We know, Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world. Horizontal axis wind turbines are most popular wind turbine design. There are several factors that affect the efficiency of a Horizontal axis wind turbine propeller.

  • Length of blades

  • Aerodynamic section of blades

  • Planform shape

  • Airfoil thickness

  • Blade twist

  • Blade number

  • Rotational speed

  • Pitch control



But here we are going to make a working model of a wind turbine or home made mini wind turbine. So, We don't have to mind the factors listed above. Just make a simple mini wind turbine for your kids.

 

Watch this video. You will Like it!!













PVC PIPE
PVC 2.5 inch

Tools and Parts

  • 2.5 Inch PVC pipe 10 Inch in Length

  • Round base 1

  • Cycle screws 3

  • Hand cutter

  • Spanner

  • Drill




How to make a Home made mini wind turbine propeller?
Home made mini wind turbine propeller blades

 



Home made mini wind turbine propeller

  1. Buy a piece of  PVC PIPE from a hardware shop.

  2. Cut it into three equal parts. Watch video.

  3. Then again cut each three parts in to two.

  4. Take three  from six identical  blades.

  5. Use a drill to make holes at one end if the pieces.

  6. Fine the edges using the cutter.

  7. Buy a round base and cut a round piece. (coin size)

  8. Make holes as shown at equal distances.

  9. Join three blades to the round base using cycle screws.

  10. TIghten the screws using a spanner.



 



Home made mini wind turbine propeller is ready.

The Working Of A Cambered Airfoil or propeller blades


An airfoil is designed so that the air moves more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower surface. When the airfoil moves in the air, the speed of the air over the foil will be more than that of speed at the lower surface. The basic principle behind the working of an airfoil is Bernoulli's principle. It is a relation connecting speed of a fluid and pressure. The principle states that "the pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases". Actually the principle behind the lifting of an airplane is Bernoulli's principle.

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