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Tuesday, May 21, 2013

Can You Turn Energy into Matter?

According to Albert Einstein, one of the famous scientists who derived the equation for mass-energy conversion said that, it is possible to convert Matter into Energy. We know that nuclear power generation is concerned with the conversion of mass or matter into energy. A very large amount of energy can be liberated from the matter according to Einstein's Energy equation.

E=mc2

Where m is the mass and c is the speed of light in vacuum.

This equation is known to everyone who studied physics. But some months ago when I was checking the statistics of the traffic to my website I found a search query that made my mind unstable (Search query: The title of this article). I really appreciate that googler. Suddenly I called my Physics teacher (Mr. Jobish John) to ask about the Energy-Mass Conversion. He guide me through the correct way to understand the energy-mass conversion. (Thank you sir!)

Is it possible to convert Energy to Mass?

We know that, according to Einstein's equation (E=mc2) it is possible to convert mass into energy. But it still tells us that it takes a huge amount of energy to generate matter in this way. Particle accelerators can do this. Particle accelerators are able to convert energy to subatomic particles.

For example by colliding electrons(-e) and positrons(+e), some of the kinetic energy in the collision goes in to creating new particles. But these newly generated particles can't combine to form atoms, molecules and bigger (less microscopic) structures that we associate with matter in our daily life. This is why, when you convert energy into matter, it may contain both matter and antimatter. ie, you can only create matter-anti-matter pairs out of energy.

You may have heard that anti-matter has a tendency to combine with matter and turn itself back into energy. That's the reason behind the non-existence of individual matter or anti-matter particles in particle accelerators.

Production of matter and anti-matter pair is known as pair production. Pair production provides a conceptual framework for how our internal world gets translated into the physical reality we experience. The phenomenon of pair production can be viewed in two different ways.

One way is as a particle and antiparticle and the other is as a
particle and a hole.

The equation gives basic idea about the pair production.

γ --> (+e)+(-e)

Gama radiation is converted to electron and positron in nuclear fission reactions. They are unstable, because positron is the
anti-particle of electron.

If a particle accelerator could produce matter and anti-matter pair from energy its existence cannot continue even for a fraction of second. When the anti-matter meet the matter they will combine together and form energy.

Suggested article: Scientists discover how to turn light energy into matter after 80-year quest by Gail Wilson on 19 May 2014

Three physicists (Imperial College) worked out a relatively simple way to physically prove a theory first devised by scientists Breit and Wheeler in 1934. Breit and Wheeler suggested that it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing together only two particles of light (photons), to create an electron and a positron – the simplest method of turning light into matter ever predicted.

In a fiction story I have read that each and every matter (including soil,wood,body,cloths etc) have its own antimatter in the world. They are separated by a mysterious force. At the end of the world weakening of this force will lead to conversion of the whole matter to energy. The end of World.
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Saturday, May 18, 2013

How Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) Generator Works?

Traditional electric generators (Dynamo) are working on the principle of Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction. A dynamo consists of a moving metal conductor in a strong magnetic field to generate electricity.

There are AC generators and DC generators. AC generators are usually known as alternators. It is possible to convert an alternator to DC dynamo by installing a Commutator (a splitted ring arrangement), which will convert the alternating current to direct current.

Here we are discussing about Magneto hydro dynamic generators. Magneto Hydro-Dynamic Conversion of energy is a direct conversion of thermal energy and kinetic energy into electrical power. A fuel cell is also a direct converter of energy. Read more about fuel cells.

A M.H.D generator works on the same principle as that of a Dynamo. In other words, process of MHD power generation is an application of Faraday's laws of electro-magnetic induction to fluid conductors. MHD generator lacks moving parts but they operate at high temperatures. MHD was developed because of the hot exhaust gas of an MHD generator can heat the boilers of steam power plant, increasing overall efficiency.

In conventional generators magnetic flux is cut by metallic conductors and e.m.f produced is proportional to rate of cutting of flux. In MHD generator, fluid conductors are used. The fluid may be gas at elevated temperatures or liquid like sodium or potassium.

Making gas a conductor of electricity is a difficult process. It is to be heated to a very high temperature to dislodge the electrons of gas atoms which are tied up with electrically neutral particles. This process is called ionization. Atoms as such are electrically neutral. When they are ionised they become electricaly charged particles and gas becomes a conductor.

Unlike the conventional electrical machine which is essentially an electromechanical converter, MHD Generator is a heat engine operating on turbine cycle transformig internal energy of gas into electrical energy.

A plasma of hot gas is passed through a duct of varying rectangular cross section. One pair of walls (top and bottom) are insulated. They form the poles of the magnet. Magnetic field is set up between them.

Motion of the plasma in the magnetic field induces an emf which is at right angles to the magnetic field as well as to the direction of gas flow. Electrical energy is extracted from the plasma through the electrode pair which are externally connected to the load.

Working Principle of MHD generator- The Lorentz Force Law


The Lorentz force law describes the affect of magnetic field on moving charges. A simple explanation for of the law is given by the following formula.

F=QvB

Where F is the force acting on the particle. Q is the charge of the particle, v is the velocity of the particle, and B is the magnetic field. The vector F is perpendicular to both v and B according to the Fleming's right hand rule.

About the Construction of MHD Generators


When gas flows across a magnetic field and current is induced, force tending to slow down the motion of the gas is experienced. Therefore ducts of MHD generators are made diverging to accommodate the same mass of gas at smaller velocity.

Both the insulators and electrods have to withstand as high as 3000 degree celsius of temperature. They must have good resistance to thermal shock, abrasion and chemical attack.

Energy is needed to magnetize the electromagnet used in MHD Generators. To reduce the energy loss due to magnetization
Superconductive materials are used.

The working medium after leaving the generator, still possesses considerable amount of heat which can be utilised for preheating the gas or for generation of steam.

Inorder to achieve a reasonable ionization and high electrical conductivity at high temperatures like 2000-3000 degree celsius, the gases are seeded with additives like alkali metals.

Types of MHD Generators


1. Faraday generator
2. Hall generator
3. Disc generator

A coal plant installed with MHD generator can give up to 60%
efficiency, where a typical coal plant gives 40% only.
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Saturday, May 4, 2013

Free Energy Generator from Permanent Magnets

There are thousands of videos in youtube describing free energy from magnetic motors. They claim that it is possible to produce free energy from their magnetic motor design. Besides, there are websites that offer free energy generators for sale. Just type magnetic motors in to the google's home page. The results will come with thousands of youtube videos and promotional websites that offer free energy generators. Also you can find several discussion forums sharing different opinions about such automatic free energy generators. Wide popularity of such videos and Tremendous amount of keywords related to magnetic motors forces webmasters to create duplicate contents to drive traffic to their website.



Here's my opinion about magnetic motors or engines. Actually I do not believe in such automatic free energy generators because I believes in Energy conservation theory. There are people who believe it is possible to derive energy from permanent magnets. I too believed it for several years that we can convert energy stored in a permanent magnet using some devices.

Do you know magnets have no energy in it? They are totally neutral. Many peoples have been trying to create a machine, which convert force of a magnet (attractive or repulsive). That's why we are able to see some graphically created videos of magnetic free energy generator in the Internet.

But you should remember that such machine is only an imagination. I had played with permanent magnets to study how this machine works. But I realised that a permanent magnet is neutral. An atom is neutral because it contain equal number of opposite charges. Like an atom a permanent magnet is also neutral because it have two opposite poles, a north pole and a south pole. So by taking a whole magnet as a system the total energy becomes zero by cancelling opposite forces of north pole and south pole. But I wonder why there are people who is still playing with permanent magnets to create a free energy generator.

How an Imaginary Magnetic Engine Works?

Permanent magnets have the ability to exert force on magnetic materials. This attractive or repulsive force can convert into rotational energy. This energy is totally free. No external fuel or work has to be done on the engine.

According to energy conservation theory Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. So it is not possible to derive energy from a neutral magnet.

But now I don't think the whole idea is foolishness. Because I expect discovery of such engines in future, which could satisfy our growing energy needs.

How? You may have heard that, scientists at CERN (European Centre for Nuclear Research) expects the formation of Magnetic monopoles in world's largest laboratory, Large Hadron Collider experiment.

Magnetic monopoles are one of the mystery of science. Magnetic monopoles are magnets which have only a pole, a south pole or a north pole. CERN scientists expects they can create magnetic monopoles in their proton-proton collision experiment. Magnetic monopoles are thought to be an extreme sources of energy because it is a single pole magnet. They are not a neutral system. Scientists expect it is possible to draw the energy of a magnetic monopole by using suitable machines. Permanent magnets are neutral while magnetic monopoles are reservoirs of energy. If scientists could create such a magnetic monopole it may lead to the long lasting energy source and an energy efficient world.

But there are scientists who believed that monopoles do not exist.They have some reasons behind their opinion. But there are several ongoing researches too. What is your opinion about magnetic monopoles? Do you believe in it? Do you think it is possible to drive energy from such magnets? Then don't be lazy. Be the first commenter on this post.
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